Monday, March 12, 2012

LESSON: Punctuation Marks

Common Punctuation Marks and Mathematics Symbols
Монгол хэлSymbolEnglish
асуултын тэмдэг?Question mark
анхаарлын тэмдэг!Exclamation point
тодорхойлох цэг:Colon
цэгтэй таслал;Semi-colon
богино зураас-Hyphen
хашилт“ “Quotation marks, quotes
бага хаалт( )Parentheses
дөрвөлжин хаалт[ ]Brackets
налуу зураас/Forward slash
олон цэгEllipsis marks (or series of dots)
нэмэх тэмдэг+Plus (sign)
хасах тэмдэг-Minus (sign)
Үржүүлэх тэмдэг* or ×Multiply (multiplication sign)
хуваах тэмдэг/ or ÷Divide (division sign)
тэнцүүгийн тэмдэг=Equal (sign)
@ тэмдэгт@“at” sign or ampersat
Tugrugs currency

End your sentences with a period, question mark, or exclamation mark
  • Use the period to show a full stop at the end of a statement.
  • The question mark ( ? ), used at the end of a sentence is usually asking for an answer.
  • The exclamation mark ( ! ) suggests excitement or emphasis in a sentence.
I can't believe how cold it is here in Mongolia!

Comma ( , )
  • Use when there is a break within a sentence that adds information to the subject.
Lama Zopa Rinpoche, the spiritual director of FPMT, will arrive tomorrow.
  • Use when denoting a series.
Buuz is made with meat, onions, and a little salt, steamed in a dough shell.
  • Use if your subject has two or more adjectives describing it.
  • Use when referring to a city and state. It is also necessary to use a comma to separate the city and state from the rest of the sentence.
Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia
I lived in Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia, for four years.
  • Use to separate an introductory phrase from the rest of the sentence.
After the exam, we all went out to celebrate.
  • Use the comma to separate two independent clauses (can be split into two). If your sentence contains two independent clauses that are separated by a conjunction (such as and, as, but, for, nor, so, or yet), place a comma before the conjunction.
Tsetsgee bagsh taught 4 English classes this semester, but Jim bagsh taught five.
  • Use a comma to separate direct quotations.
When I was at Khulan's for Tsagaan Sar, she asked, "Do you eat meat, Jim?"

The semicolon ( ; )
  • Use to separate two related but independent clauses.
People continue to worry about mining in Mongolia; our failure to protect the environment will result in long term problems money can't solve.
  • Use to separate a complex series of items, especially those that contain commas.
Tsetsgee introduced me to her family including Ichkaa, her husband; Pujee, her son; Baska, her daughter; and Amgalan, her youngest son still in high school.

The colon ( : )
  • Use to introduce a list. Use only after a full sentence which ends in a noun.
The Stupa Cafe has many types of Mongolian dishes, but all without meat: tsuvin, khorshor, and buuz.

The hyphen ( - )
  • Use when a long word might have to be split between two lines.
  • Use a hyphen when adding a prefix to some words. The purpose of this hyphen is to make the word easier to read, for example: “re-examine” instead of “reexamine”
  • Use hyphens when creating compound words from separate words.
Everything is up-to-date in Kansas City.
  • Use a hyphen when writing numbers out as words. Separate the two words of any number under one hundred with a hyphen.
There are twenty-nine aimags in Mongolia.

The dash ( — )
  • Use to make a brief interruption within a statement, a sudden change of thought, an additional comment, or a dramatic effect.
An introductory clause is a brief phrase that comes — yes, you guessed it — at the beginning of a sentence.

Quotation marks, Quotes ( “ “ )
  • The double quotation ( " ) encloses a direct quotation
His Holiness the Dalai Lama said "Om Mani Padme Hum."

Parenthesis ( ( ) )
  • Use to clarify (can also use commas), to place an afterthought, or to add a comment.
He as a teacher at FPMT (Foundation for the Preservation of the Mahayana Tradition).

Brackets ( [ ] )
  • Use to clarify or to revise a direct quote so that it appeals to your own writing.
"[The fire] was devastating," said the director of the center.
"It was devastating!" – the actual quote by the director.
  • Use to make a reference.

Forward slash ( / )
  • Use to separate and and or, when appropriate.
To get a visa, you will need your identity card and/or your birth certificate.
  • Used when quoting lyrics and poetry to denote a line break.
Row, row, row your boat / Gently down the stream. / Merrily, merrily, merrily, merrily, / Life is but a dream.
  • Use to use interchangeable nouns.
"The student/part-time employee has very little free time."